This is the third edition of this influential and comprehensive handbook. Substantive changes in international humanitarian law have taken place recently, including a progressive development of customary law; and the jurisprudence of national courts, international ad hoc tribunals and theInternational Criminal Court, which have made a reassessment of this vitally important part of international law both timely and topical.New material is extensively incorporated, including new developments in treaty law, such as the 2010 amendments to the ICC Statute, as well as new topics that have been extensively debated in recent years: direct participation in hostilities; air and missile warfare; belligerent occupation;operational detention; and the protection of the environment in armed conflict. The growing need to consider borderline issues of the law of armed conflict and the interplay of international humanitarian law, human rights, and other branches of international law have led to have led to some materialbeing considered in a new light.The commentary both deepens reflection on such innovations, and critically reconsiders views expressed in earlier editions to provide a contemporary analysis of this changing field. Renowned international lawyers offer a broad spectrum of legal opinions, restating the law in this area, which isapplicable worldwide. Issues of human rights in armed conflicts and in post-conflict situations are extensively addressed. Controversial opinions and national and international judgments are documented and discussed. Problems of application of the law in recent military campaigns are assessed andinterpreted in a practice-oriented manner. Based on best-practice rules of global importance, this book also sets out an international 'manual' for international humanitarian law in armed conflicts.